A Guide to the H-2A Agricultural Visa Program

H-2A Agriculture Visa

The H-2A temporary agricultural program allows farmers who anticipate a shortage of domestic workers to bring nonimmigrant foreign workers to the United States to perform agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature. Employers must file a petition with US Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Generally, compensation paid to an H-2A worker is not subject to federal income tax. However, compensation may be subject to local income tax in some instances.

What is an H-2A visa?

The H-2A temporary agricultural program allows agricultural employers who anticipate a shortage of domestic workers to bring nonimmigrant foreign workers to the United States to perform agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature. Unlike other temporary work visa categories, there is no cap on the number of people who may be granted H-2A status.

The program requires that the employer provide evidence that there are not enough U.S. workers who are “able, willing, qualified and available to do the work,” and that the employment of foreign workers will not adversely affect wages and working conditions of comparable U.S. employees. Employers must also pay workers the adverse effect wage rate (AEWR), or a higher amount if specified in a labor contract or agreed-upon collective bargaining agreement.

In addition, H-2A employees must be paid the prevailing wage or a higher amount, as determined by DOL. Wages may be subject to income tax in accordance with applicable U.S. law and relevant income tax treaties.

Who can apply for an H-2A visa?

The H-2A temporary agricultural workers program allows farmers with enough demand for seasonal or temporary workers to bring nonimmigrant foreign nationals to the United States to perform agricultural labor. The program also establishes a process to determine the prevailing wage for these workers.

Employers can request H-2A workers through a temporary labor certification application with the local State Workforce Agency. The applications are generally filed 60 to 75 days before the farmer anticipates a need for the workers. The applications are then reviewed by the Department of Labor’s Chicago National Processing Center.

The Department of Labor’s final rule strengthens worker protections, enhances enforcement to prevent fraud and abuse, and simplifies and modernizes the H-2A visa application, Temporary Labor Certification, and prevailing wage determination processes. The final rule also provides additional flexibility for agricultural employers to use the H-2A program by adjusting the total number of H-2A workers per farm and by changing the duration of their employment.

What are the requirements for an H-2A visa?

The H-2A visa program allows U.S. agricultural employers who anticipate a shortage of domestic workers to bring foreign guest workers to fill seasonal farm jobs. The farmers must meet specific regulatory requirements before hiring the workers.

Employers must file a temporary labor certification with the state workforce agency 60 to 75 days before they need the H-2A workers. They must demonstrate that the employment of the H-2A workers will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of local domestic workers.

The employers must also submit a Form ETA-790 to the Department of Labor’s Chicago National Processing Center to apply for the H-2A visa petition. The workers should wait for the final determination by the Department of Labor’s Chicago National Processing center before they travel to the US for their work. The employers must follow the special withholding rules for nonresident aliens for payments to H-2A workers. The withholding rules are published in Chapter 9 of Publication 15 (Circular E) Employer’s Tax Guide and Notice 1392, Supplemental Form W-4 Instructions for Nonresident Aliens.

How do I apply for an H-2A visa?

H-2A permits agricultural employers to hire foreign nonimmigrant workers to perform temporary services or labor. The employer must demonstrate that there are not enough U.S. workers who are able, willing, qualified, or available to do the work; that the job is temporary or seasonal in nature; and that bringing in H-2A workers will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers.

Employers must submit a temporary labor certification to the Department of Labor (ETA-790 or ETA-9142A) and an H-2A petition to USCIS at least 45 days before they need the foreign workers. The petition must include an employer statement describing the specific project, job duties, working conditions, wage rates, benefits, and other terms of employment.

The legal team at Farmer Law can help employers navigate the complex H-2A visa application process and ensure federal compliance. We can also help employers develop plans and policies to protect the rights of their workers and avoid costly fines for labor violations.

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The Significance of 메이저사이트 in the Digital Hierarchy

In the digital playground where myriad websites clamor for attention, one term consistently buzzes through the chatters of cyberspace – 메이저사이트 (Major Site). Stumble upon it, and you realize you’ve hit the big leagues of online surfdom. But what does it mean to be dubbed a 메이저사이트 in the complex web of the internet? Let’s dive into the rabbit hole that is this digital designation.

Standing out in the vastness of the internet requires a certain je ne sais quoi. Major sites, or 메이저사이트 in Korean, are the titans among websites, boasting impressive traffic, unwavering trust, and an assortment of services that could easily make a lesser webpage weep in inadequacy. They’re the cornerstone in their niche, whether it be entertainment, e-commerce, information dissemination, or social networking, 메이저사이트 speaks to a realm of supremacy in the digital hierarchy.

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Delving further into the allure of these titanic entities, discover a pantheon of meticulously curated content, a harmonious echo through the chambers of user engagement. Here, not even the most intricate of analogies can truly encapsulate the essence of 메이저사이트; they’re not simply websites, they are experiences, paths to different dimensions per se, where the every day’s mundane is cloaked in the spectacular. It’s where trends are born, opinions are crafted, and the pulse of the online zeitgeist is palpably felt.

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Q: What is 메이저사이트?
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Agriculture: Farmers, Crops, Animals, and the Environment

How Agriculture Works

Every day, agriculture touches your life: the food you eat, the ethanol in your car, and the natural fibers in your clothes. Agriculture is an integral part of our civilization.

Agriculture is both a science, with measurable outcomes, and an art. It prioritizes working with nature, rather than against it.


Farmers are responsible for growing, nurturing and harvesting crops for human consumption. They may also be involved with raising animals for meat, milk and wool. Some farmers are specialists, for example dairy and pig farmers who watch over and raise cows and hogs with the ultimate goal of selling them.

A career in farming offers many benefits, including the ability to be self-sufficient and a connection to the land. It can also be a rewarding and challenging job that requires a wide range of skills and knowledge.

However, most family farmers say that over the past few decades, decisions about who produces our food and how it is produced have moved from households and governments to large corporate boardrooms. This trend, known as agribusiness, has led to consolidation of farms. Many small, family-owned operations have been replaced by larger ones that produce a variety of products at higher rates of efficiency. This allows corporations to sell these products at a lower cost.


When a farmer plants and harvests an entire field of one type of fruit, vegetable or animal, it’s called a crop. Agriculture is the world’s largest industry, employing millions of people around the globe, from scientists developing new crops to factory workers building farm machinery and harvesting food.

Crops provide food, fuel and other raw materials for people worldwide. They also drive transportation, manufacturing and countless other industries. People began shifting from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies about 10,000 years ago.

As agriculture evolves to meet the demands of a global population, many farmers seek ways to produce more with less land and water. These innovations include crop rotation and fertilization, which allow people to grow more on a field and keep soil productive. Farmers also use chemicals to fight insects, weeds and diseases that harm plants and livestock. Many of these methods, however, deplete the earth’s nutrients, mistreat animals and generate various forms of pollution.


Agriculture is a huge industry that provides raw materials for other industries and helps sustain global communities. But it can also be a source of suffering and poverty.

Many family farmers who raise animals find themselves trapped in a system that exploits both people and animals. On factory farms, workers in slaughterhouses and meatpacking plants earn poverty wages to perform dangerous and traumatic jobs. The exploited animals are the unfortunate victims of an industrialized animal agriculture system that trades soil and water quality, food safety and rural communities’ well-being for maximized profits achieved through consolidation and mechanization.

Despite the immense scale of the agriculture industry, two billion people in the world are malnourished. To reduce hunger, corporations and consumers in rich countries should focus on environmentally sustainable farming systems that don’t degrade natural resources. They should also minimize food waste, as one trillion dollars’ worth of food is wasted around the world each year. In addition, they should support family farmers by lowering prices for their crops.


Many public policies and big businesses push farmers to treat their land like food factories: places where inputs (seed, fertilizer, pesticides, water, energy) are converted into outputs (marketable foods). These systems have raised crop yields but also sparked environmental crises. The use of industrial chemicals has depleted soil, triggered toxic algal blooms in rivers and lakes, and caused global warming.

But a growing movement of farmers and scientists are transforming agriculture into something more sustainable—environmentally, economically, and socially. These new approaches, known as agroecology, build healthy soil by using natural inputs, embracing diversity, and maximizing ecosystem services.

These changes can protect our natural resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and give people the healthy, nutritious food they need for a long, happy life. They can also support farmers and workers, create local economies, and promote racial equity and justice. This is a vision worth fighting for. To do it, we need to repurpose the subsidies that perpetuate unsustainable farming practices.

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The Downsides of Agriculture

Why Agriculture Was a Mistake

Many historians believe that agriculture was a key step in the development of civilization. It increased our food supply and allowed for greater societal, economic and technological advancements.

But Jared Diamond, author of ‘Collapse’ and ‘Guns, Germs and Steel,’ has argued that agriculture was the worst mistake in human history. He says people went from frolicking in the wilderness to lives of drudgery and limited diets.

1. It led to malnutrition and starvation

Some historians argue that farming was a mistake and that humans would be better off returning to hunter-gatherer ways. One such scholar, Jared Diamond (author of ‘Collapse’ and ‘Guns, Germs and Steel’), even called agriculture “the worst mistake in human history”.

He argues that we went from frolicking in the wild to a life of drudgery and a diet based on a few staple crops like wheat, barley, rice, and maize. As a result, people experienced malnutrition and a host of new diseases that didn’t exist before.

In addition, the reliance on maize led to nutritional deficiencies because the crop is hard on the soil and doesn’t provide the full range of nutrients that people need. This is why it’s important to grow a variety of different types of food in our gardens and farms today. This is also an important part of Climate Smart Agriculture, a way of growing that’s good for the planet and promotes healthier eating habits.

2. It brought about deep class divisions

Agriculture is a vital part of any economy and supplies food to the world. It also provides raw materials for industries, such as textiles and biofuels. Traditionally, most people were involved in agriculture to some extent. However, as societies developed, farming became a specialized career choice instead of an everyday necessity.

As agriculture became more specialized, farmers looked for ways to maximize their yield. This led to the development of different farming methods, such as crop rotation, fertilizer use, and chemical sprays.

This 2nd agricultural revolution also caused land ownership to change. Farmers began to develop larger plots and sell them for profit. This lead to class divisions and social inequality.

3. It led to the spread of disease

The emergence of agriculture brought with it the rise of infectious disease. The shift from a diverse diet to dependence on one or a few staple crops resulted in malnutrition, which is the perfect environment for parasitic infection. Moreover, concentrating people into a small area increased the likelihood of disease spread by mosquitoes and other insects.

Some historians have viewed the invention of agriculture as the single worst mistake in human history, with disastrous implications for social inequality and ill health. Jared Diamond, author of ‘Collapse’ and ‘Guns, Germs and Steel’, is the most vocal proponent of this view. More recently, Yuval Noah Harari, author of ‘Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind’, has made similar claims. Several recent studies support these claims. For example, a rice-based diet leads to low iron absorption and increases the risk of anaemia. Undernourishment also exacerbates the severity of infections like diarrhoea, malaria and measles. The reduction in biodiversity that accompanies agricultural intensification can also increase the incidence of zoonotic diseases, such as tick-borne encephalitis and salmonella.

4. It led to the emergence of large cities

Regardless of its precise origins, agriculture soon gave people the ability to sustain far more of their populations than could hunter-gatherers. One reason is that the average farm produces 100 times more food than a forest full of edible plants.

The other reason is that farming allowed people to live sedentary lives rather than constantly shifting camp. That led to lower death rates and boosted birth rates.

It also meant that families no longer had to share a single camp site or hunting grounds, and women had fewer problems with childbirth. But that also encouraged infertility, and archaeological mummies show that, among farming societies, many more men than women suffered from tuberculosis.

These changes eventually led to the development of large cities. But they didn’t happen overnight. Within a short window, intensive farming developed independently in the Fertile Crescent, the Yangzi and Yellow River basins of China, the New Guinea highlands, and elsewhere. Those early societies then began to trade and settle, resulting in the emergence of modern civilizations and all that goes with them—arts, culture, science, a booming economy, and complex language.

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The Enthralling Realm of 토토총판: Opportunities, Challenges, and the Role of Technology

Embarking on the journey into the dynamic realm of 토토총판, a myriad of enthusiasts finds themselves captivated by its potential and vibrancy. This cornerstone of entertainment holds a significant stature in the ecosystem of interactive gaming, providing both challenges and rewards to those who navigate its intricacies with finesse and strategic acumen. With the industry expanding at a swift pace, understanding the nuances of 토토총판 is not just a hobby for many but a serious pursuit laden with opportunities.

The allure of 토토총판 extends beyond the surface of gaming; it’s a realm where the thrill of prediction, the excitement of competition, and the satisfaction of triumph converge. As participants delve deeper into this world, they discover a landscape that is both complex and exhilarating. It’s a community where knowledge, analytics, and intuition can pave the way to substantial rewards and where every decision can sway the trajectory of one’s journey.

But what exactly is 토토총판? In essence, it’s a networked system of partnership and collaboration within the online space, fostering connections and facilitating the growth of the sports betting ecosystem. These networks act as the lifeblood of the industry, propelling it forward through innovation and user engagement. They provide the tools and platforms necessary for enthusiasts to explore the breadth of possibilities within the sports betting domain.

The quest for mastery in 토토총판, however, is not one to be undertaken lightly. It requires a blend of skills – both tactical and interpersonal – to navigate the ever-changing landscape. Yet, the rewards for those who do so effectively can be substantial. From carving out one’s niche to building a loyal following, the path to success is as diverse as the individuals who walk it.

As we dissect the phenomenon of 토토총판, one cannot overlook the role technology plays in its propagation. Cutting-edge platforms and sophisticated algorithms enhance user experience and bring efficiency to the forefront. Such advancements bolster the sector, inviting more passionate individuals to explore its depths. However, with technological progress comes a responsibility to wield it wisely and ethically – a responsibility that 토토총판 affiliates and operators are all too aware of.

As we pivot to a conclusion, it is clear that 토토총판 is not just a fleeting trend but a burgeoning sphere of opportunity for the astute and the ambitious. The landscape beckons, and for those who answer the call, the journey is fraught with potential and promise.

Here we delve into a set of FAQs that unearths deeper insights into 토토총판:


**1. What initial steps should one take to get involved in 토토총판?**
To get started, research reputable platforms that support 토토총판 to understand the regulatory framework and establish a foundational knowledge of the sector. Additionally, networking with existing players in the field can provide valuable insights.

**2. How important is it to understand the technicalities of sports betting when participating in 토토총판?**
Grasping the technicalities of sports betting is crucial, as it enhances decision-making capabilities and improves strategic outcomes within the 토토총판 ecosystem.

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토토총판 can be pursued either full time or part-time depending on individual dedication, strategic skill, and the depth of engagement with the industry.

**4. What are the risks involved in 토토총판, and how can one mitigate them?**
The primary risks include legal concerns, financial loss, and ethical dilemmas. Mitigation involves thorough research, responsible betting, and adherence to regulations.

**5. How does technology shape the future of 토토총판?**
Technology is set to further revolutionize 토토총판 through enhanced platforms, data analytics, and user experience, propelling the industry towards greater heights of innovation and engagement.…